Mythical Beings and Becoming: Emerging Identities of Art Educators in India
This essay layers the theoretical concepts of myth (Barthes, 1972) and becoming (Deleuze and Guattari, 1987) to examine how we might produtively read the identity of contemporary Indian art educators2 in order to understand the landscape of art education in India in a nuanced manner. Interpreting narratives of Indian art educators through the mythical concept of Laxmana-rekha, the concepts of myth and becoming are applied to make visible connections between Indian art educators’ choice of profession as influenced by social constructions of gender. The concept is also used to understand ways in which we receive and perceive the lessons of cultural mythologies in contemporary contexts of perceiving and constructing perceptions of art education.
Arni, S. (2011). Sita’s Ramayana. Toronto, Canada: Groundwood Books.
Barthes, R. (1972). Myth today. In Mythologies (pp. 109–159). New York, NY: Hill & Wang.
Bowers, C. A. (1990). Implications of Gregory Bateson’s ideas for a semiotic of art education. Studies in Art Education, 31(2), 69–77. http://doi.org/10.2307/1320634.
Brodbeck, S. (2009). The Mahābhārata patriline: Gender, culture, and the royal hereditary. Surrey, England: Ashgate.
Chaube, S. P. (1992). History and problems of Indian education: Discussing salient features from ancient to modern times and highlighting the basic issues and trends for to-day and tomorrow. New Delhi, India: Vinod Pustak Mandir.
Deleuze, G., & Guattari, F. (1987). A thousand plateaus: Capitalism and schizophrenia. (B. Massumi, Trans.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Deutsch, E. & Dalvi, R. (2004). The essential Vedanta: A new source book of Advaita Vedanta. Bloomington, IN: World Wisdom.
Doniger, W. (2004). Hindu myths: A sourcebook translated from the Sanskrit (Penguin Classics) (New Ed edition). London, England: Penguin.
Eck, D. L. (1998). Darśan: Seeing the divine image in India. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Embree, A. T. (Ed.). (1988). Sources of Indian tradition, vol. 1: From the beginning to 1800 (2nd edition). New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Fulkova, M., & Tipton, T. (2011). Diversifying discourse: The influence of visual culture on children’s perception and creation of art. In D. Faulkner & E. Coates (Eds.), Exploring children’s creative narratives (pp. 132–156). London, England: Taylor & Francis.
Garber, E. (1992). Feminism, aesthetics, and art education. Studies in Art Education, 33(4), 210–225. http://doi.org/10.2307/1320667.
Garoian, C. R. (2001). Performing the museum. Studies in Art Education, 42(3), 234–248. http://doi.org/10.2307/1321039.
Grace, D. (2013). Women’s apace “inside the haveli”: Incarceration or insurrection? Journal of International Women’s Studies, 4(2), 60–75.
jagodzinski, j., & Wallin, J. (2013). And so it goes on. In jan jagodzinski & J. Wallin (Eds.), Arts-based research (pp. 189–195). Boston, MA: Sense Publishers. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-6209-185-6_7.
Jauhola, M. (2010). Becoming better “men” and “women”: Negotiating normativity through gender mainstreaming in post-tsunami reconstruction initiatives in Aceh, Indonesia. Retrieved from http://cadair.aber.ac.uk/dspace/handle/2160/4695.
Joshi, S. (2001). ’Cheli Beti’ discourses of trafficking and constructions of gender, citizenship and nation in modern Nepal. South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies, 24(sup001), 157–175. http://doi.org/10.1080/00856400108723442.
Kantawala, A. (2007). Re-framing the past: Re-making invisible histories of nineteenth century pedagogies of drawing and re-membering art educators in colonial India (Doctoral dissertation). Teachers College, Columbia University. University Microfilms International (UMI). 484 pages; AAT 3111025.
Kantawala, A. (2012). Art education in colonial India: Implementation and imposition. Studies in Art Education, 53(3), 208–222.
Keifer-Boyd, K., & Smith-Shank, D. L. (2006). Speculative fiction’s contribution to contemporary understanding: The handmaid art tale. Studies in Art Education, 47(2), 139–154.
Kohli, A. (2012). Gang rapes and molestation cases in India: Creating mores for Eve-teasing. Te Awatea Review, The Journal of Te Awatea Violence Research Centre, 10(1 & 2), 13–17.
Maira, S. (2005). An Asian vision of arts in education: Learning through the arts. In Meleisea, E. (Ed.), Report on the Asian regional symposia on arts education (pp. 7–9). Bangkok, Thailand: UNESCO. Retrieved from: portal.unesco.org/culture/en/files/40390/12653837063Educating_for_creativity.pdf/Educating%2Bfor%2Bcreativity.pdf.
Maira, S. (2006). Towards Ananda: Rethinking Indian art and aesthetics. Gurgaon, India: Viking/Penguin India.
Malani, N. (2004). Sita/Medea 2 [Acrylic and enamel reverse painting]. Retrieved from http://www.nalinimalani.com/painting/storyretold.htm.
Mani Rathnam. (2010). Usure Poguthey - Raavanan. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DIhDmaSCwxU&feature=youtube_gdata_player.
Mathur, M. (2006). Crossing the threshold: Women in Shashi Deshpande’s small remedies and Manju Kapur’s difficult daughters. In B. Mishra (Ed.), Critical Responses To Feminism (pp. 85–108). Delhi, India: Sarup & Sons.
McClure, M. (2011). Child as totem: Redressing the myth of inherent creativity in early childhood. Studies in Art Education, 52(2), 127.
Metcalf, S., & Smith-Shank, D. L. (2001). The yellow brick road of art education. Art Education, 54(5), 45–50. http://doi.org/10.2307/3193935.
NCERT. (n.d.). Living craft traditions of India: Textbook in heritage crafts for class XI (ebook). City, state? NCERT. Retrieved from http://ncert.nic.in/NCERTS/textbook/textbook.htm?kehc1=0-10.
Paley, N. (Producer & Director).(2009). Sita sings the blues. (Motion Picture). USA: FilmKaravan.
Patel, S. (2010). Ramayana: Divine loophole. San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books.
Pattanaik, D. (2003). Indian mythology: Tales, symbols, and rituals from the heart of the subcontinent. Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions.
Puniyani, R. (2013). India’s rape culture: Urban versus rural. Retrieved from http://archive.nyu.edu/handle/2451/33907.
Smith-Shank, D. (2001). Women artists get personal: Narratives, myths, and old wives’ tales. In P. Perron, P. Sbrocchi, Colilli, & M. Danesi (Eds.), Semiotics as a bridge between the humanities and the sciences (pp. 255–264). New York, NY: Legas Press.
Smith-Shank, D. L., & Schwiebert, V. L. (2000). Old wives’ tales: Questing to understand visual memories. Studies in Art Education, 41(2), 178–190. http://doi.org/10.2307/1320662.
Sudhir, P. (2005). Arts education: The foundation of education. In Meleisea, E. (Ed.), Report on the Asian regional symposia on arts education (p. 107–111) Bangkok, Thailand: UNESCO. Retrieved from: portal.unesco.org/culture/en/files/40390/12653837063Educating_for_creativity.pdf/Educating%2Bfor%2Bcreativity.pdf.
Vatsyayan, K. (1972). Some aspects of cultural policies in India. Paris, France: UNESCO. Retrived from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0000/000022/002218eo.pdf.
Vatsyayan, K. (1999). Culture: The Crafting of Institutions. In Karlekar, H. (Ed.), Independent India: The First Fifty Years (pp. 486–503). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Vatsyayan, K. & Chattopadhyaya, D.P. (Eds.) (2009). Aesthetic theories and forms in Indian tradition. New Delhi, India: Munshiram Manoharlal.
Vivekananda, S. (2010). Vedanta Philosophy: Lectures by the Swami Vivekananda on Raja Yoga Also Pantanjali’s Yoga Aphorisms, with Commentaries, and Glossary of Sanskrit Terms. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger.